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Rheumatoid Arthritis and CRP Levels: Your Guide

Posted on August 06, 2020
Article written by
Annie Keller

  • A blood test for C-reactive protein (CRP) levels can help determine whether you have rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  • If you have already been diagnosed with RA, CRP levels can indicate whether you are having a flare-up.
  • Checking CRP levels also helps your doctor determine whether your RA treatment is effective.
  • CRP levels are not the only test available for RA, and a normal CRP test result does not rule out an RA diagnosis.

Blood tests are never fun. And if you’re not even sure what is being tested for, they can be frustrating, too. Knowing what you’re being tested for — and why — can help you feel more in charge of your medical history. One blood test your doctor may order if you have rheumatoid arthritis, or if RA is suspected, is a C-reactive protein (CRP) test. Here’s what this test is for and what your results might mean.

What Is Arthritis?

Most people are familiar with the term arthritis, but are not always as familiar with its different categories. Arthritis is simply a term for joint inflammation. Unlike osteoarthritis, where the joint inflammation is caused by joint tissue breaking down over time, rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition where otherwise healthy joint tissue is attacked by the immune system.

What Causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?

In an autoimmune or inflammatory condition, the body’s ordinary tissues are seen as foreign and are attacked by the immune system. In RA, the specific type of tissue under attack is the synovial membrane. This is tissue that lines the joints and keeps them lubricated and nourished with a substance called synovial fluid. When the tissue is being attacked, just like any suspected foreign invader, inflammation results. This inflammation is responsible for the joint pain and stiffness that are early symptoms of RA.

What Is a CRP Test?

A CRP test measures levels of C-reactive proteins in the blood. These proteins are made by the liver. If you have inflammation in any area of the body, CRP is sent through the blood to the affected area. A high level of these proteins indicates inflammation in the body.

RA is one of many conditions that can cause elevated C-reactive protein levels. If your doctor suspects you may have RA, this is typically one of the tests you will undergo. CRP levels of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) or lower are considered normal. Higher CRP levels may mean infection or chronic illness, or may be the result of physical trauma.

Why Are CRP Levels Important to RA?

The body produces C-reactive protein in response to inflammation. Since inflammation is the main cause of RA symptoms, CRP is one of the markers that can be tested to see if an RA diagnosis is likely.

CRP may be produced in response to another protein agent called interleukin-6 (IL-6). Interleukin-6 is one of the proteins produced when the immune response from RA starts to attack the joints. These proteins, which belong to a category called cytokines, are typically produced in response to acute injury or infection. But if normal tissue is believed to be an invader, the immune system will produce cytokines to attack it.

What Does Monitoring CRP Levels Do?

After an RA diagnosis, your doctor may monitor your CRP levels periodically. One reason for monitoring is to check the response to a current treatment. Since CRP is produced in response to inflammation, a drop in CRP levels after treatment begins means there is less inflammation in the body. A drop in inflammation may have other causes, but a lower CRP level combined with other test results and an improvement of symptoms can mean a particular treatment is effective. Conversely, if CRP levels are the same or elevated after treatment, and other test results continue to show inflammation, it may show that treatment is not working.

Some treatments are monitored for effectiveness using CRP level tests. Actemra (Tocilizumab) is one of these. Actemra is believed to work by blocking interleukin-6, the protein responsible for elevated CRP levels in rheumatoid arthritis. If Actemra is working properly, CRP levels should decrease during use.

CRP levels are also used to determine if a person is having a flare-up of RA. While CRP levels alone aren’t diagnostic, a rise can indicate worsening inflammation. Because of this, your doctor may take periodic CRP levels to determine your baseline score. Once baseline results are established, it’s easier to see when your condition is beginning to flare again. Additional treatments can then be started before the flare-up gets to an unmanageable point.

Can You Have RA Without High CRP Levels?

CRP levels are only one tool used to help diagnose RA. A low or normal CRP level doesn’t necessarily mean that you don’t have RA, and an elevated one doesn’t necessarily mean you do. As one member of myRAteam wrote, “All of my CRP tests have been normal, even though I have visible inflammation and pain.”

A study of people with RA in Finland and the U.S. found that, while many participants had elevated CRP test results, between 44 percent and 58 percent had normal levels. This tells us that a normal CRP level does not rule out RA.

Another study periodically tested CRP levels in a large group of women to see which ones would later develop RA. The study did not find increased CRP levels directly before diagnosis. People who are obese have also been found to have higher CRP levels.

Other Blood Tests for RA

Since CRP measurement is not the only indicator of RA, and normal CRP levels can be found in those with RA, other blood tests may be ordered at the same time if RA is suspected. Two other biomarkers — erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and rheumatoid factor (RF) — are usually checked along with CRP.

RF tests measure a different kind of protein, and high levels of this protein are also a sign a person may have RA. ESR tests are another measure of inflammation. ESR is a less sensitive test than CRP and is not as useful a diagnostic marker, but since it’s easy to test for, it’s usually run at the same time as CRP. If all three levels are elevated, this is a stronger indication of RA — although it is not definitive.

One myRAteam member told another about their test results: “If [your CRP levels] plus your RF was positive, that’s pretty strong evidence of definite RA.” Even if all three levels are at normal rates, a diagnosis of RA can still be made if other symptoms are present. Conversely, elevated levels of all three do not mean a person has RA. Another member wrote, “Just for the record, blood tests for RA are only part of the diagnosis puzzle. … They are never enough alone to diagnose RA. Some folks actually have high RF levels, high anti-CCP, high CRP, and high ESR level, and definitely do NOT have RA.”

Lab tests, therefore, are only one part of how RA is diagnosed.

Here are some recent conversations on myRAteam about CRP levels and treatment.

Do you have questions about CRP levels? What was your path to RA diagnosis? Comment below or start a conversation on myRAteam.

References

  1. What is Arthritis & What Causes it? — NIAMS
  2. What Causes Osteoarthritis, Symptoms & More — NIAMS
  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis — NIAMS
  4. C-reactive protein test — Mayo Clinic
  5. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, C-Reactive Protein, or Rheumatoid Factor Are Normal at Presentation in 35%–45% of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Seen Between 1980 and 2004: Analyses from Finland and the United States — The Journal of Rheumatology
  6. The Relationship Between Elevations in CRP with Physical Function and Radiographic Progression over the Long-Term in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis — ARHP Abstracts
  7. C-Reactive Protein — Understand the Test — Lab Tests Online UK
  8. RA Causes: What are the Top Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis? — Rheumatoid Arthritis Support Network
  9. C-Reactive Protein (Blood) — University of Rochester Medical Center
  10. Rheumatoid factor — Mayo Clinic
  11. C-Reactive Protein in the Prediction of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Women — JAMA Network
  12. ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate) — Understand the Test — Lab Tests Online UK

Annie specializes in writing about medicine, medical devices, and biotech. Learn more about her here.

A myRAteam Member said:

My advice is to stay away from sugar, flower and processed foods! It’s so difficult to do, but you will feel so much better. And yes, turmeric is great… read more

posted about 18 hours ago

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