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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects each person a little differently. Symptoms depend on the severity of the condition and can appear or disappear at any time. Symptoms worsen during exacerbations (also called flares) and may subside during periods of remission. RA is a progressive disease, meaning joint damage tends to worsen over time. Joint damage caused by RA cannot be reversed.
Although most people think of RA as a disease of the joints, it is actually a systemic disease that can cause inflammation in many parts of the body.
Treatment can effectively manage many RA symptoms and slow progression.
Joint symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
RA typically impacts the joints symmetrically – affecting the same joint on both sides of the body. Joints commonly affected include the hands, feet, wrists, elbows, ankles, and knees. Joints are often swollen, stiff, warm, reddened, and painful. Left untreated, RA can cause joint damage that may lead to deformity and disability. Stiffness can be more intense in the morning or after a period of inactivity. Baker’s cysts – painless swellings also called popliteal cysts – may form behind the knees.
Skin symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
RA can cause skin rashes, ulcers, and the development of rheumatoid nodules – firm lumps under the skin.
Eye symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
As a systemic disease that impacts the whole body, RA can cause uveitis (eye inflammation) that involves pain, redness, vision changes, and light sensitivity. Left untreated, uveitis can progress and lead to loss of vision.
General symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
Fatigue is a very common symptom of RA due to high levels of inflammation in the body. Rheumatoid arthritis can also be associated with anemia, or low red blood cell count, which can contribute to fatigue. RA can also cause abnormal bleeding. Depression and anxiety are common in RA, as in all chronic diseases. Some people with RA experience weight loss.
Complications of rheumatoid arthritis
RA can promote inflammation anywhere in the body, leading to problems such as vasculitis – inflammation of the blood vessels – which can cause life-threatening organ damage. Pericarditis, or inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, is another potential complication of RA that can cause chest pain. RA can also cause inflammation of the lungs resulting in chest pain, cough, and shortness of breath.
People with RA are more likely to develop heart disease, diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and high cholesterol, particularly if they are obese. Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, stopping smoking, and eating a balanced diet can help counteract the risk.
At what age do rheumatoid arthritis symptoms appear?
In the majority of cases, rheumatoid arthritis is diagnosed in people between ages 30 and 60. However, a juvenile form of RA may develop in children under age 17.
Do rheumatoid arthritis symptoms go away?
Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms may appear during a flare and diminish during a remission period. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic condition that does not currently have a cure. In most people, symptoms can be effectively treated with medication and lifestyle changes.
What does rheumatoid arthritis look like?
Rheumatoid arthritis can show up as swollen or disfigured joints, such as toes that curl up (clawed toes) or that twist and overlap with one another, or fingers that twist and point outward.