Both osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are conditions that affect the joints. Unlike RA, osteoarthritis is not an inflammatory disease caused by an autoimmune reaction. Rather, osteoarthritis is caused by the breakdown of the cartilage with age or heavy usage. Around one-third of adults age 65 and over are impacted by osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis.
How to tell the difference between OA and RA
Both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis can lead to pain, stiffness, and a decrease in mobility in the joints. In addition to pain and stiffness, RA often causes joints to swell and feel warm. Unlike RA, osteoarthritis in the joints is not symmetrical in nature. In other words, one hand or wrist may be impacted, but not the other.
RA is a systemic disease that can cause general symptoms such as fatigue and fever as well as inflammation in other parts of the body including the eyes, blood vessels, and the membrane that surround the heart. Osteoarthritis is limited to the joints.
Read more details about rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.
Causes of osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the joints in the same way that the immune system normally would fight viruses or bacteria. In other words, the damage in RA is caused by the body’s immune system attacking the joints, causing inflammation that leads to pain, swelling, redness, and warmth as well as progressive damage.
Osteoarthritis is not caused by inflammation. With heavy usage or as we age, cartilage breaks down and exposes the bones of the joints. This results in pain, stiffness, and a decrease in mobility.
Diagnosis of osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is generally diagnosed through a combination of a physical examination, blood tests, and imaging scans. The evaluation is usually undertaken by a rheumatologist.
Osteoarthritis is also diagnosed with a physical examination and may be followed up with imaging scans such as an X-Ray. While there is currently no blood test that can identify whether you have osteoarthritis, a joint fluid analysis may be undertaken to rule out other causes for joint pain, such as gout.
Treatment of osteoarthritis vs. rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis treatments are typically aimed at modulating the immune system to calm inflammation, reduce autoimmune attacks on the joints, and ease symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Ibuprofen, Aleve (Naproxen), Aspirin may be used to relieve mild to moderate pain and inflammation. However, the mainstays of RA treatment are disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, or DMARDs. DMARDS are designed to modulate the immune system to control the processes that cause inflammation and joint damage. In severe cases, surgery may be needed to repair or replace joints. Read more about rheumatoid arthritis treatments.
With osteoarthritis, symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter and prescribed treatments including NSAIDs. Heating and icing joints can help with pain. Cortisone or hyaluronic acid injections may improve symptoms too. Surgery may be recommended in some cases. DMARDs would not help in cases of osteoarthritis, since OA is not an autoimmune disease.